Cannabidiol Does Not Impact Acute Anabolic or Inflammatory Signaling in Skeletal Muscle In Vitro
Background: Cannabidiol (CBD) is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of clinical conditions including as an aid for muscle recovery. Previous work demonstrated that CBD exhibited mild effects on skeletal muscle, with a tendency to increase anabolic signaling and decrease inflammatory signaling. Methods: To gain mechanistic insight and extend these findings, we conducted a set of experiments using C2C12 myotubes. Results: Increasing the dose of CBD (1-5 μM) provided with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) showed no effect on anabolic signaling through mTORC1 (S6K1 [Thr389], p=0.27; rpS6 [Ser240/244], p=0.81; or 4E-BP1 [Thr37/46], p=0.87). Similarly, inflammatory signaling through nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) (p105, p=0.88; p50, p=0.93; or phosphorylated p65 [Ser536], p=0.84) in response to tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) was unaffected by CBD (2.5 μM), whereas dioscin, a natural product that blocks NF-κB signaling, reduced p105 and phosphorylated p65 (Ser536) compared with the TNFα and the TNFα + CBD condition (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). Finally, cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor levels were measured in C2C12 cells, murine skeletal muscle, cortex, and hippocampus. Although CB1 was not detectable in muscle cells or muscle tissue, high levels were observed in brain tissue. Conclusion: In conclusion, CBD does not directly modulate anabolic or inflammatory signaling in myotubes in vitro, which can likely be explained by the lack of functional receptors.
Keywords: C2C12; CBD; NF-κB; inflammation; mTORC1; muscle.