Effects of anti-seizure medications on sleep architecture and daytime sleepiness in patients with epilepsy: A literature review
Anti-seizure medications (ASMs) may improve or be detrimental to sleep. A literature review (as an update to the 2014 review by Jain and Glauser [https://doi.org/10.1111/epi.12478]) of 25 ASMs of interest (articles from 12 ASMs included) on the effect of ASMs/non-drug treatments on sleep in patients with epilepsy was conducted. The most common objective instrument was polysomnography, and the most common subjective measures were the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Eslicarbazepine acetate, lacosamide, and perampanel improved or had no effect on sleep. Perampanel was associated with low incidence of insomnia, and lacosamide with low incidence of daytime sleepiness adverse events. Clonazepam, felbamate, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, and phenobarbital worsened or had no effect on sleep. Lamotrigine may be associated with insomnia risk and phenobarbital with daytime sleepiness. Data for valproic acid were mixed. Overall, cannabidiol, carbamazepine, and levetiracetam had no effect on sleep. Epilepsy surgery may benefit sleep in patients with a good surgical outcome. Some ASMs, and, possibly, epilepsy surgery, may have positive effects on sleep, possibly linked to achieving seizure control. Nonetheless, other ASMs may worsen sleep in some settings. Clinicians should consider such observations when making treatment decisions, particularly for patients with comorbid sleep disorders.
Keywords: Anticonvulsants; Epilepsy; Seizures; Sleep; Sleep-wake disorders.