Plasma and joint tissue pharmacokinetics of two doses of oral cannabidiol oil in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus)
Cannabidiol (CBD) has gained widespread popularity as a treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) in pets; however, there is minimal scientific evidence regarding safe and effective dosing. This study determined plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics after oral CBD oil suspension administration in Hartley guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), which spontaneously develop OA at 3 months of age. Ten, 5-month-old, male guinea pigs were randomly assigned to receive 25 (n = 5) or 50 mg/kg (n = 5) CBD oil once orally. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h timepoints. Open-field enclosure monitoring revealed no adverse effects. After euthanasia, stifle cartilage and infrapatellar fat pads were collected to quantitate CBD. CBD concentrations were determined using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. The area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve was 379.5 and 873.7 h*ng/mL, maximum plasma concentration was 42 and 96.8 ng/mL, time to maximum plasma concentration was 1.6 and 4.8 h, and terminal phase half-life was 8.1 and 10.8 h for the 25 and 50 mg/kg doses, respectively. CBD was detected in joint tissues of all animals. Further studies, including work in female guinea pigs, are needed to determine the efficacy of CBD for OA.
Keywords: Cavia porcellus; cannabidiol; guinea pig; osteoarthritis; pharmacokinetics.