Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: A Review of the Presentation and Treatment
J Emerg Nurs. 2020 Dec 31:S0099-1767(20)30381-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jen.2020.11.006. Online ahead of print.
After the increasing legalization of cannabis, there has been a rising trend in cannabis consumption, especially among heavy users. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a syndrome of cyclic vomiting related to chronic cannabis use. The difficulty of diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome has led to a disproportionately high use of health care resources. Although the exact mechanism of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is still unknown, patients typically progress through prodromal, hyperemetic, and recovery phases. Persistent vomiting in a patient who reports relief with hot showers should trigger the consideration of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome as a possible diagnosis. For treatment, antipsychotics such as haloperidol or droperidol have been shown to be more effective than conventional antiemetics for symptom control. Capsaicin should also be considered, given its positive efficacy and low adverse-effect profile. Providers must be aware of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome, its diagnosis, and treatment, given the increasing prevalence. Further research is required to elicit the exact mechanism and additional therapies for this syndrome.
Source: ncbi 2
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