Comparison of Five Oral Cannabidiol Preparations in Adult Humans: Pharmacokinetics, Body Composition, and Heart Rate Variability.
Data supporting the physiological effects of cannabidiol (CBD) ingestion in humans are conflicting. Differences between CBD preparations and bioavailability may contribute to these discrepancies. Further, an influence of body composition on CBD bioavailability is feasible, but currently undocumented. The aims of this study were to: (1) compare the pharmacokinetics of five oral CBD preparations over 4 h; (2) examine the relationship between body composition and CBD pharmacokinetics; and, (3) explore the influence of CBD on heart rate variability. In total, five preparations of CBD, standardized to 30 mg, were orally administered to 15 healthy men and women (21-62 years) in a randomized, crossover design. Prior to and 60 min following CBD ingestion, heart rate variability was determined. Body composition was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Peak circulating CBD concentration, time to peak concentration, and area under the curve was superior in a preparation comprising 5% CBD concentration liquid. Fat free mass was a significant predictor (R2 = 0.365, p = 0.017) of time to peak concentration for this preparation. Several heart rate variability parameters, including peak frequency of the high frequency band, were favorably, but modestly modified following CBD ingestion. These data confirm an influence of CBD preparation and body composition on CBD bioavailability, and suggest that acute CBD ingestion may have a modest influence on autonomic regulation of heart rate.
Keywords: autonomic; bioavailability; fat free mass.