Cannabidiol and Vitamin D3 Impact on Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

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Background and objective: The aim of the present study was to establish a new differentiation protocol using cannabidiol (CBD) and vitamin D3 (Vit. D3) for a better and faster osteogenic differentiation of dental tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Materials and methods: MSCs were harvested from dental follicle (DFSCs), dental pulp (DPSCs), and apical papilla (APSCs) of an impacted third molar of a 17-year old patient. The stem cells were isolated and characterized using flow cytometry; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); and osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation. The effects of CBD and Vit. D3 on osteogenic differentiation of dental-derived stem cell were evaluated in terms of viability/metabolic activity by alamar test, expression of collagen1A, osteopontin (OP), osteocalcin (OC), and osteonectin genes and by quantification of calcium deposits by alizarin red assay. Results: Stem cell characterization revealed more typical stemness characteristics for DFSCs and DPSCs and atypical morphology and markers expression for APSCs, a phenotype that was confirmed by differences in multipotential ability. The RT-PCR quantification of bone matrix proteins expression revealed a different behavior for each cell type, APSCs having the best response for CBD. DPSCs showed the best osteogenic potential when treated with Vit. D3. Cultivation of DFSC in standard stem cell conditions induced the highest expression of osteogenic genes, suggesting the spontaneous differentiation capacity of these cells. Regarding mineralization, alizarin red assay indicated that DFSCs and APSCs were the most responsive to low doses of CBD and Vit. D3. DPSCs had the lowest mineralization levels, with a slightly better response to Vit. D3. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that DFSCs, DPSCs, and APSCs respond differently to osteoinduction stimuli and that CBD and Vit. D3 can enhance osteogenic differentiation of these types of cells under certain conditions and doses.

Keywords: CB2; Vitamin D; bone regeneration; cannabidiol; dental stem cells; osteogenesis; tissue engineering.

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