Carbamazepine (CBZ) is mainly metabolized by CYP3A4 into carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZE). Cannabidiol (CBD) is a potent inhibitor of the CYP3A family. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of acute and chronic administration of CBD on the pharmacokinetics of CBZ and CBZE. Male SD rats were assigned into four acute and four chronic groups: control (CBZ only), positive control (ketoconazole), low-dose cannabidiol (l-CBD), and high-dose cannabidiol (h-CBD). Acute CBD groups were administered a single dose of CBD, while chronic CBD groups were given multiple doses of CBD for 14 days (q.d.) before CBZ administration. Plasma samples had been collected and analyzed for CBZ and CBZE, then their noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters before and after CBD administration were determined. The co-administration of a single l-CBD has significantly increased CBZ’s [Formula: see text] by 53.1%. Furthermore, CBZE kinetics showed a significant decrease in Cmax by 31.8%. Acute h-CBD caused similar effects on CBZ’s [Formula: see text] with 40.4% significant decrease in CBZE’s Cmax, when compared to the control. Chronic h-CBD caused a significant decrease in CBZ’s Cmax and [Formula: see text] by 75.3% and 65.7%, respectively. Besides, [Formula: see text] and Cmax of CBZE significantly decreased by 75.3% and 78.3%, respectively. These results demonstrated that the pharmacokinetics of CBZ and CBZE had been significantly affected by CBD. When CBD has been administered as a single dose, the effect is believed to be mainly caused by the inhibition of CBZ metabolism through CYP3A. The effect of chronic administration of CBD probably includes kinetic pathways other than the inhibition of CYP3A-dependent pathways. Graphical abstract.
Keywords: CYP3A; Cannabidiol; Carbamazepine; Carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide; Drug–drug interactions; Pharmacokinetics.