Cannabinoid Use in Musculoskeletal Illness: a Review of the Current Evidence.

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PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

The use of cannabinoids has increased since legalization of recreational and medical use in the USA. It is likely that many orthopaedic patients consume cannabinoid products during the traumatic or perioperative period. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pre-clinical data evaluating the mechanism of action of cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and to evaluate the current clinical data on the use of cannabinoids in musculoskeletal illness.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Recent pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that cannabinoid use and the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has an important role in bone healing and bone homeostasis. There is data that suggests that the use of cannabidiol (CBD) may increase bone healing, whereas the use of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the major psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, likely inhibits bone metabolism and repair. The clinical implications and consumption of marijuana by orthopaedic patients have not been thoroughly evaluated. Studies have demonstrated concern for negative cardiovascular and psychiatric effects caused by marijuana use, but have not yet elucidated outcomes in the orthopaedic literature. With the recent increase in advertising of CBD products and legalization of marijuana, it is likely that many orthopaedic patients are consuming cannabinoid products. The clinical implications and consumption of these products are unclear. We need more robust and well-designed clinical studies prior to making further recommendations to our patients on the consumption of these products.

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